There’s a notion that floats around social media in various forms, suggesting English teachers use symbolism to create meaning where none existed.

Meme: Venn diagram with two circles, small overlap: What the author meant, and what your English teach thinks the author meant. Caption: What your teacher thinks: The curtains represent his immense depression and his lack of will to carry on. What the author meant: The curtains were blue.

Had social media been around when I was in high school, I would have clicked “like” on this post. In elementary school, whatever the teacher said was correct. “This story uses colour as symbols to create moods.” Write that on the test and a good mark was guaranteed.

By high school, I was more rebellious and less invested in high marks (to the disappointment of teachers and parents). “We don’t know what the author was thinking when they said the curtains were blue, and it’s presumptuous to claim otherwise. Symbolism is just a way to push preferred or elitist interpretations of a story.”

A few decades and a few humanities degrees later, I take a more nuanced view. There may be symbolism in this story, and this is what it may mean. It’s not that I’ve been corrupted by the academic establishment. Now I consider symbolism from the perspective of an author, with fifteen books sold (that’s the number of copies, not the number of titles, but I’m still an author).

As an author, I put lots of symbolism into my writing. For example, in Ocean’s Lure, there is a scene where the characters go swimming together. I intended this scene to suggest a mutual metaphorical baptism – they are beginning a new life together. So, if in 200 years, an English teacher claims my swimming scene symbolizes baptism, they are correct. (While it may be arrogant to assume my book will still be around in 200 years, let alone taught in English classes, Jane Austen would likely be surprised to know how much attention her books get today. Did I just compare myself to Jane Austen? Shameless, I know.)

Distant view of two adults standing to their necks  in ocean water near the shore.
Does this make you think of baptism? Modified image, based on a photo by Huy Phan from Pexels

However, it’s also correct for a reader to assume there’s nothing related to baptism in my swimming scene. To understand the scene as a baptism, you need to be aware of and looking for symbols, and know something about contemporary Christianity. It also helps if you had a film studies professor who spent a semester drawing attention to swimming or water scenes in every movie. That’s a specific cultural background. In terms of Stuart Hall’s approach to the reception theory of literary criticism, I’ve encoded a meaning into the text. But whether the reader decodes that meaning depends on their cultural background.

To go further, the reader may decode an entirely different meaning. They might see the scene as symbolizing a death. It is in a metaphorical sense, so that might still work. Or they might see the scene as symbolizing famine, and be confused by its presence in the story. Of they might try to interpret my use of an ocean swim in light of this discussion of pools in American films:

A discussion of pool symbolism in movies.

To make things even more complicated, while I deliberately added symbolism to the book, I almost certainly unconsciously added other symbolism. If a reader points it out, I may recognize it, or not. In the end, every reader creates their own meanings from a story. The job of English teachers is to help readers understand there are many ways to consider a story, including looking for and analyzing possible symbols, consciously or unconsciously added by the author.

I put symbols in stories partly for those who seek them, and partly because it’s unavoidable, since language is ultimately symbolic. Colours, for example, are defined by physics. The colour red is a group of wavelengths of light. But the word red is completely abstract. It has a common meaning (a group of wavelengths of light) only because a group of people (English speakers) have decided it does. It’s a short leap from that to understanding red can symbolize power, and therefore it’s significant that my hero drives a red truck – and that it’s washed away in flood.

Not everyone may see the symbols, or understand them as I intended, but that’s okay. And I hope English teachers encourage readers to explore many ways to enjoy, appreciate, and criticize stories.

Others have discussed this…here’s a rantier take:

And this fixed version, from

A modified version of the Venn diagram above. This one states that the meme claims English teachers teach a single meaning to a text for rote learning, but English teachers believe they use evidence and empathy to build a better world by promoting discussion about the possible meanings of texts.
Categorized as Writing

By trc

Freelance writer, freelance editor, web consultant, and film studies scholar.

Leave a comment

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.